ICEberg 2.0: an updated database of bacterial integrative and conjugative elements

Iceberg vs ICEs
Integrative and conjugative element (ICE) is an important member of the bacterial mobile genetic elements, which is integrative to the bacterial chromosome and encodes a fully functioning conjugation machinery and is thus self-transmissible between bacterial cells. The cargo genes of ICEs, coding for the antibiotic resistance determinants and the virulence factors, can confer the host with selective advantages, making the ICE a vital driving force for bacterial adaptation and evolution.

In addition to the self-transferability, the ICEs have also been reported capable to mobilize other genetic elements, such as the chromosome-borne integrative and mobilizable elements (IMEs), cis-mobilizable elements (CIMEs), plasmids and etc. IMEs and CIMEs are also important vehicles for the spread of antiobiotic resistances and virulence factors. However, unlike ICE, IMEs and CIMEs are commonly devoid of conjugal apparatus, thus have to hijack the machinery of other conjugative elements. The crosstalk between IMEs, CIMEs and ICEs is an emerging hotspot in the research of horizontal gene transfer (Bellanger, et al., FEMS Microbiol Rev, 2014; Delavat, et al., FEMS Microbiol Rev, 2017; Guédon, et al., Genes, 2017).

Compared to the version 1.0 released in 2012, ICEberg 2.0 has been updated with the following major improvements:
(i) New ICEs with manual curations; (ii) IMEs with interactions to ICEs; (iii) ICE and IME detection tool, ICEfinder.

Reference for ICEberg 1.0: D. Bi, Z. Xu, E. Harrison, C. Tai, Y. Wei, X. He, S. Jia, Z. Deng., K. Rajakumar and H.Y. Ou (2012) ICEberg: a web-based resource for integrative and conjugative elements found in Bacteria. Nucleic Acids Research, 40, D621-D626. [Abstract]

Current version: 2.0
Since July, 2011; Updated: Sept., 2018
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